留學生會計essay範文As a pay settlement, Credit card had been the tool for promoting the efficiency and save the society running costs. By the popular using of credit card, the loan amount is increasing fast now. According the latest data of PBOC, the totally issue number has got 1.979 billions and the loan amount reach 5.773 billion dollars which increased 131.3%. Until which the retail financial market of China will gradually be opened to foreign banks according to the treaties of WTO is coming. China's banks are confronted with serious challenges. For those foreign banks interested in Chinese retailing financial market competing for the credit card market will be the first step to reach their targets. Compared with those much stronger competitors, most of Chinese banks had developed their credit card business for so much shorter period that their marketing theories and skills are not as mature as their foreign competitors. Be confronted with the serious situation, whether will maintain the current strategy business or develop the new regions of marketing, domestic banks have to make their decisions. Most of domestic banking had not realized the imagination that their annual profit over their annual input. Furthermore, the sales strategy is much similarly and the market segment is much scared. The competition situation is so severity that the topic of how to increase the marketing sharing and how to realize the inner target of management become so hot recently. It is obviously meaningful for us to study the sales strategies of Chinese credit card business. Determined factors of the card issue scale are on the choice of the strategy of card sales. Card sales strategy could fully imply the imagination of the operation of the bank. The apt sales model could link the strategy of the bank and the market, so they could avoid the risk of the market, get the balance between the costs and the incomes, accomplish the targets, increase the scale. At the same time, they could well control the risk of banking. There have been many researches about sales strategy in the west society. They main focused on the organization of the different sales channel, the cooperation between the marketing and the sales. The cause of this phenomenon is that they have entered the mature marketing period of the card business. Domestic banking seldom did many researches of the sales model, and the entirely copy of the business model is so often. Firstly, I introduced the basic status of domestic credit card market, reviewed the historical developing process and current situations and the sales theoretical. I analyzed the key factors of the sales model selection. Secondly, I introduced the some best practices in credit card marketing in developed countries and territories, and pointed out the experiences for Chinese credit card suppliers to learn from. Furthermore, I predict the tendency of the card development, the do some suggestions when we confronted with the situation. Also based on the marketing theories and the card sales strategy theories, I analyzed typical problems in their practices and gave my recommendations on how to improve the marketing practice of Chinese credit card business.
凱恩斯顯示,适度通貨膨脹是有利于刺激消費和投資,吹牛經濟增長,以及促進就業。水勢、高通貨膨脹可以處以一定數量的負面影響經濟,這是描述問題受到了人們的關注。澳大利亞儲備銀行對于通貨膨脹的預期修正舉行的頂部2 -到- 3%樂隊為兩年多了。甚至在2010年6月,通貨膨脹預期唯一将會返回3%,目标樂隊的頂端(聲明對貨币政策2009)。與通貨膨脹越來越論的儲備銀行正在許多關鍵的措施,以确保它控制在适度的利率。
Keynes suggests that moderate inflation is beneficial to stimulate consumption and investment, boast economy growth, as well as promote employment. Contrarily, high inflation may impose a number of negative effects on economy, which worths being concerned by people. The Reserve Bank's revised forecasts are for inflation to hold above the top of the 2-to-3% band for more than two years. Even by June 2010, the expectation is only that inflation will be back at 3%, the top of the target band (Statement on Monetary Policy 2009). With the inflation becoming more concerning, the Reserve Bank is taking many crucial measures to ensure it controlled in a moderate rate.
Inflation means that money supply exceeds the actual money demand, generating a sustained increase in the general level of prices over a period of time whose essence is the total demand of society greater than the total supply. Inflation can not be anticipated while its generation, without any doubt, will bring about a series of influences, both positive and negative. High inflation rate, out banks’ control, is dangerous for one country’s economy. This paper represents many serious effects of high inflation and measures taken by Reserve Banks.
Negative effects of high inflation
The value of money decrease, including money depositing in banks where inflation may lead too high interest rates and fail to protect the purchasing power. As a result, this effect perhaps stimulates people to seek a higher wage or social position to follow the purchasing power of their nominal wages which in turn imposes much pressure on the economy running efficiently, blocking the progress of economy development finally.
During a period of low inflation, if one kind of goods’ price goes up, purchasers and sellers can clearly realize an actual change between supply and demand, an immoderate and quick response being taken. On the contrary, being in high inflation, it is difficult to identify the changes between relative price and general price. By the monthly inflation rising to 20% or 30%, shop owners will change prices frequently, with an unavoidable result of the relative price being in disorder and inadaptable.
Additionally, the level of unemployment and inflation closely related. On one hand, demand-driven inflation, under certain condition, can promote manufactures expanding production scale, increasing employments; on the other hand, inflation decreases the effective rate of interest which will stimulates the demand of consumption and investment, as well as boost the fullest use of resources and the growth of total supply. However, with the declining of supply, inflation emerges, national income and the quantity of employment also beginning to decrease which in turn, causes most workers unemployed. Finally, sustained inflation will produce larger unemployment which induces worse inflation again if without effective measures to prevent.
In conclusion, high inflation can generate many detriments, such as rising prices, weakening people’s purchasing power, influencing consumption and productivity of company. Therefore, to maintain a healthy and steady growth in economy, one country should pay high attention on the inflation and take possible and effective measures to keep a moderate inflation
Measures taken by Reserve Banks
“Another important influence on the economy which is often put under the heading of monetary policy is the level of the exchange rate.” (Recent Influences on the Exchange Rate Melbourne, 9 November 2000.) The main policy to sustain low inflation depends on monetary policy which presents some measures taken by Central Banks to affect economy activities, especially steps to control money supply and regulate interest rates whose final objectives are to maintain particular policy targets, such as restraining inflation, achieving complete employment or boasting economy growth. The Reserve Bank of Australian (RBA) takes charge of implementing monetary policy, providing financial service for the government, preserving international balance of payment. For recent 20years, the RBM has renewed some system tools and trade arrangements (e.g. expanding domestic securities), guaranteeing the executive tools of monetary policy keeping pace with the market which goes down to the present, enforcing the monetary policy efficiently.
By now, the RBA has accomplished two achievements, one is to regulate surplus and deficiency of foreign exchange as well as solve the problem of insufficient foreign exchange confronting the government; the other is to reestablish currency reserves, for money intervening lead currency shortage in 1997-2001.Since last year, continuous revaluation of Euro has provided profitable external environment.
留學生會計essay範文Domestic market operation
The main policy targets of the RBA is formulating and implementing the rate of official cash. The RBA is also responsible for the consistence between unofficial effective rate of interest and official cash. Unofficial cash depends on the overall condition of commercial bank clearing account in the RBA, namely balance of payments. The RAB need make sure the channel of cleared founds smooth, so official cash should suit for the normal trades of commercial banks in the financial market. Besides, during currency exchange, the Reserve Bank adds amount on the clearing account of commercial banks, supporting swapping dealing of Euro between commercial banks to promote economy activities.
In addition, the RBA decides to expand the scope of certificated securities, especially emphasizing on operation to the domestic securities, instead of relying on foreign change conversion and futures to safeguard the market balance. This decision increases the degree of price openness and also decreases prices crises at the same time. Through these crucial monetary policies, the RBA maintain a moderate inflation, economy enjoying a steady growth.