Chapter I Introduction
1.1 Research Backgroun
The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China marked a new era of China’ s development, attracting a few of politics, scholars and experts from different countries and regions. The translation of the 19th CCPC Report has therefore become a very direct channel for them to know China’s politics, economy, culture, development trend, views on different international issues and so on. In another word, the C-E version of the 19th CCPC Report has played an important role in presenting China’s stand in international affairs to the rest of the world. As for Eco-translatology, relating to at least two fields as Ecology and Translatology, is a multi-diciplinary crossover research and takes translational ecology, textual ecology and translation community as subjects. It has put forward a new perspective of holism from different views as “Three Dimensional Transforming, Adaptation and Selection, Multi-Dimensional Integration”.
However, the present studies on political documents translation focus more on Functional Equivalence, Skopos Theory, Intercultural Communication and so on. The materials that apply Eco-Transtology as the guide are most Chinese classics translation, pragmatic translation, translation teaching and so on. By combining the C-E translation of the 19th CCPC Report and Eco-Transtology, the translation inspiration, translation skills, translation standard and principles are expected to provide.
1.2 Research Purpose
The C-E translation of the 19th CCPC Report are issued by Central Compilation & Translation Bureau which majors in translating, studying and spreading Marxism, the CPC’s ideology so as to improve theory exchanges and international discourse of China. It is reported that foreign experts for the first time took part in the translation process of the 19th CCPC Report.
Chen Mingming, who was the Executive Vice President of China Translators Association and the director of the Translation Department of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said that “As for the translation of the 19th CCPC Report, there is a great progress that foreign experts are invited in advance to discuss about the translations and expressions leading to a good result. In the past, foreign medias considered our political documents translations were too tedious and dry to understand accurately. But for this time, foreign medias commented nothing but the contents, which means they could understand the translation in a rather clear way(Wang Dawei, 2018).”
So the author tries to study the C-E translation of the 19th CCPC Report and learn its translation skills and methods on the language level. While for the theory level, the author expects to offer a new perspective based on the Eco-translatology.
Chapter II Literature Review
2.1 Chinese-English Translation of China’s Global Communication
Referring to the political texts translation, it is very inevitable to discuss the “C-E translation of China’s Global Communication ( “Waixuan”in Chinese)”in the first place. What is the “Waixuan Translation”? There are many discussions on “how to translate the Chinese word ‘Waixuan’ ”. The author has selected “Chinese-English translation of China’s global communication (Lu Xiaojun,2013)”.
Zhang Jian, the professor of Shanghai International Studies University, thought that the Waixuan Translation can be understood in both broad and narrow senses. Narrowly speaking, “Waixuan Translation” refers to translations of practical writing such as media reports, government documents, introductions of government and enterprises, public signs and so on.While in broad sense, the concept of “Waixuan Translation” is inclusive and covers all translation activities, of which aims to spread information of politics, economy, culture of the ST.
Waixuan Translation is a special form of translation, indicating that against the background of globalization, the world and foreign people who are mainly communication targets are expected to know about China through foreign languages via different mediums.(Zhang Jian, 2013)
One of the important principles on Chinese-English translation of China’s global communication is Huang Youyi’s “Three Being Close to ”, namely, “being close to the reality of China’s development; being close to foreign audiences’ demands of China’s information; being close to foreigners’ habits of mind.( Huang Youyi, 2004)” Intercultural communication is also an important perspective to study Chinese-English translation of China’s global communication. Scholars and experts hold the opinion that translation itself is a activity of communication. Lv Jun (2007) has put forward that translators should dynamically consider both ST and TT; communication studies regard the translation process as a dynamic system.
2.2 The Translation of Political Texts
The political texts translations, as one branch of C-E translation of China's global communication, refer to documents, issued by the Party Central Committee, the state council and the local governments at all levels, concerning the major policies on society and economic development of the nations and locals. The English version of it has become an important channel for foreigners to know China’s policies, guidelines, politics, economy, military, education, culture, diplomacy and so on.
Recent years, as the development and position of China are rising, the studies on political documents translation are increased correspondingly. By inputting the key words “political documents translation” in the CNKI for fuzzy research, the results show that the number of published papers on political documents translation maintains stable. In another word, the amount of published papers which take“political documents translation”as key words is only a few. But if we track down the subject like “Chinese-English translation of China’s global communication”, the published literature are more than the former one. Because the political documents translation is a branch of Chinese-English translation of China’s global communication. The research scope of C-E translation of China’s global communication is wider than the anther one’s.
As for papers of political documents translation on the CNKI, there are three main types of studies: theoretical research; translation strategies and skills; practice report. The perspectives of theoretical research are as follows: functional equivalence; textual perspective; intercultural communication; adaptation theory and so on. However, the number of political documents materials which applies Eco-translatology into translation guidelines is as not much as we thought. There is a long way to make researches in this field, which not only brings new research direction to Eco-translatology but also finds new translation inspiration to the political documents translation.