1.1 Research background and significance
There are many research experts devoted to Woolf in China. Qu Shijing is one ofthem, who plays a very important role in promoting Woolf’s acceptance in China. Mr.Qu Shijing graduated from Fu Dan University, majoring in English Language andLiterature, and has been engaged in studying contemporary English literature andcomparative culture, Woolf and her stream-of-consciousness novels for a long time,and have achieved fruitful results in thematic discourse, which has exerted a goodinfluence in the academia. For example, his translation of On Novels and Novelistshas been reprinted continuously in the 1980s. His researches of stream ofconsciousness novels and Woolf provides valuable reference materials for domesticscholars to study Woolf. The profound insights of the thought also promoted theacceptance of stream of consciousness and Woolf by the experts and scholars at thattime, and provided valuable inspiration for readers. In the 1980s, Qu Shijing made animportant contribution in promoting Woolf’s and stream of consciousness. QuShijing’s research on Woolf is helpful to guide young scholars.
Virginia Woolf is one of the great English novelists, who has made greatcontributions to literary creation and the development of ancient literature. In Woolf’slife, he published a large number of novels, essays, biographies and letters. From theperspective of feminist criticism, narrative criticism and energy analysis, a largenumber of scholars have explored various ideological themes in Woolf’s novels,analyzed abstract characters in the novel, and explored the narrative art in the novel.Since the 1920s and 1930s, Chinese scholars have begun to introduce Woolf and herworks, but a great deal of translation and Research on Woolf’s works have beencarried out since the early 1980s. Domestic academia’s attention mainly lies inWoolf’s stream-of-consciousness novels’ creation theory and her feminist thought,some of Woolf’s main novels and essays have been translated and introduced toChinese readers. Most of the studies are limited to Woolf’s stream of consciousness.The comparative analysis of Woolf’s works illustrates the feminist ideology. However,the study of Woolf’s acceptance in the new period of China is relatively scarce.Therefore, this paper aims to fill the vacancy.
1.2 Research questions and methodology
In this thesis, three questions are to be answered：
(1) How does Qu Shijing promote Woolf’s dissemination and reception in thenew period of China?
(2) How does Qu Shijing choose the translation materials and strategies underthe specific manipulation background?
(3) What are the results of the cross-role interaction between the roles ofscholars and translators?
To solve the above questions, this thesis mainly adopts methods of literaturecollation and text analysis. Firstly, this thesis makes a comprehensive study of Qu Shijing’s translation and research achievements under ideology manipulation. Then,from the perspective of professional, the author will analyze how the scholartranslator Qu Shijing promote the reception of steam of consciousness,Woolf and herworks. At last, the author analyzed the translated work of Qu Shijing, so as to findwhat kind of strategies and materials that Qu chose,and the results of the cross-roleinteraction between the roles of scholars and translators.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Domestic studies on Qu Shijing’s translations and researches
2.1.1 Studies on Qu Shijing’s stream of consciousness view
In the early 1980s, the scholar translator Qu Shijing began his research on Woolfand his stream of consciousness novels. He made pioneering contributions to Woolf’sresearch, and made important achievements in translation, data compilation andmono-graphic writing. The translation study of Woolf runs through the whole life ofQu Shijing. Although few scholars have done professional research, most of theexisting reviews are based on Woolf’s translation and stream of consciousness, whichhas become an extension of Woolf’s research in China. Therefore, according to thetime and incomplete statistics of the author, the domestic academic researches on QuShijing are summarized as follows:
Domestic studies on Qu Shijing can be categorized into two aspects: Studies onQu Shijing’s view on stream of consciousness; Comparison and analysis of Chineseversions.
Firstly, with his scholar identity and translator’s identity, Qu Shijing has his ownunique insights and profound understanding of Woolf’s stream of consciousness, andin his thesis, he has made a lot of discussions on his own comments andunderstanding of the concept of stream of consciousness, related papers, such as，
HaiBei (1992), explores that Qu Shijing’s new work Music, Art, Literature - AComparative Study of Stream-of-Consciousness Novels is a continuation of theclassification, systematization and deep thinking of the complex phenomena andartistic manifestations of stream of consciousness over the years. It is also a new attempt to break through the relationship between the literary style of stream ofconsciousness, the related musical style and the painting style in an interdisciplinaryway, in the article Stream of Consciousness: An Interdisciplinary ExploratinComments on Qu Shijing’s Music, Art, Literature--A Comparative Study of Stream ofConsciousness Novels. Zhang Feng (2009) in the research A Milestone in the Study ofContemporary English Novels--Comments on Qu Shijing and Ren Yiming’s History ofContemporary English Novels, reviews that the History of Contemporary EnglishNovels is the largest book to introduce contemporary English novelists and works sofar. It provides a frame of reference for scholars who study novel theory and novelcreation.Yang Lixin (2003) compiled the book British Lily in the 20th CenturyLiterature - Virginia Woolf. In this book, Yang Lixin showed that Mr. Qu Shijing had ageneral analysis of some of the current-of-consciousness novels that were too simple,one-sided or even misunderstood in the domestic academic circles, which alsoprovided valuable facts for readers.CHAPTER THREE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK...................... 12
2.2 Previous studies On Virginia Woolf in China
In the late 1940s, the ideological function of literature, political attitude ofwriters and the value orientation of class position gradually became the mainstreamideology, and occupied a leading position with the establishment of New China.Western modernist literature was criticized as rubbish and decadente from the hostilecamp, before the new era of reform and opening up for a long time. This tendency isevident in both Woolf’s translation and research fields. From the founding of thePeople’s Republic to the new period, the translation of foreign literature was generallyin a depressing state. The translation of modernist works has become a disaster area inparticular.
From 1950s to 1970s, owing to the influence of political ideology, famousEnglish translators such as Blake, Wilde, Lawrence, Yeats and Woolf, who had beentranslated and introduced in the history of translation and introduction of modernEnglish literature in China, were excluded from the scope of translation andintroduction for a long time. During this period, Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown,translated by Zhu Hong, was the only harvest of Woolf. It was included in SelectedLiterary Theories of Modern British and American Bourgeoisie and was published byWriters’ Publishing House in 1962. However, this article is used for internal reference,it has not been accepted by the public and has not played its role.
From the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 to the collapse of the Gangof Four in 1976, the translation of foreign literature in China has reached its lowestlevel ever. Therefore, the situation of translation literature in the period of the Cultural Revolution can be described as “silent translation forum and distorted translation”.
3.1 Introduction of Lefevere’s Manipulation Theory................................12
3.2 Three Manipulative Factors...................... 13
CHAPTER FOUR QU SHIIJNG’S LITERATURE TRANSLATION AND WOOLF’SRECEPTION IN THE NEW PERIOD........................... 19
4.1 Ideology manipulation: Evidenced by Qu’s achievements............................. 19
4.1.1 Ideology in the 1980s of China................................. 19
4.1.2 Achievements of Qu Shijing’s translation of Woolf..............................20
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION......................................53
5.1 Major findings.........................53
5.2 Limitations and suggestions for future study.........................55
CHAPTER FOUR QU SHIIJNG’S LITERATURE TRANSLATION AND WOOLF’SRECEPTION IN THE NEW PERIOD
4.1 Ideology manipulation: Evidenced by Qu’s achievements
4.1.1 Ideology in the 1980s of China
In the late 1970s, the Chinese literary academia set off a second climax of “openthinking”, “learning from the West” and “going to the world” (Jiang Qiuxia, LiuGuoguo, 2005, p.69). China also ushered in another climax of translation afterBuddhist sutra translation from the Eastern Han dynasty to the Tang and Songdynasties, scientific and technological translation from the late Ming and early Qingdynasties, and scientific translation from the early Ming to the May 4th movement.This is because, on the one hand, after the end of the cultural revolution, excellentforeign literary works are urgently needed to be introduced into the literary world tofill the gap caused by the cultural revolution. Domestic readers are also eager to readexcellent foreign literary works. On the other hand, the spring breeze of reform andopening-up has also aroused people’s awareness of openness and Western learning.People are more inclusive of foreign literature and culture. Relatively pluralistic andopen social ideology has created a relaxed atmosphere for the importation of foreignliterature and the development of translated literature. Compared with the end of the19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the manipulation of translationliterature by political ideology at the end of the 20th century has obviously weakened.The source of input of translated literature is no longer confined to European literatureand Soviet Russian literature. The introduction of a large number of translations ofAmerican literature, Asian literature and Latin American literature has injected freshblood into our literary and translation circles. According to statistic data that morethan 6,000 translated works were published in China during the decade 1980-1989alone, involving 2,000 writers from nearly 100 countries (Chen Ming, 2009, p.127).